Palmer Street traffic analysis

Traffic Analysis

I observed and counted all traffic passing through Palmer Street during the following periods:

  • Weekday morning peak
  • Weekday evening peak
  • Weekday daytime
  • Weekday night time
  • Weekend daytime
  • Weekend night time

Traffic counted includes:

  • Cars passing through the street (including direction and speed)
  • Bicycles
  • Pedestrians
  • Activities of cars and pedestrians e.g. parking, residential use

The peak period of use of the street is heavily influenced by the school day of Sacred Heart School, located on the corner of Palmer and Nicholson Streets. A large number of parents were observed picking up and dropping off their children. Many students also use the street on foot to walk to and from school.

20141001 palmer street traffic #1

Weekday morning peak
Clear, 15km/h wind, 10 degrees

Cars: 87
Bicycles: 7
Pedestrians: 182
Pets and motorbikes: 0

20141001 palmer street traffic #2

Weekday daytime
Sunny, 15km/h wind, 17 degrees

Cars: 40
Bicycles: 12
Pedestrians: 60
Pets and motorbikes: 4

20141001 palmer street traffic #3

Weekday afternoon peak
Sunny, 15km/h wind, 20 degrees

Cars: 80
Bicycles: 6
Pedestrians: 151
Pets and motorbikes: 0

20141001 palmer street traffic #4

Weekday night time
Light rain, 18km/h wind, 13 degrees

Cars: 38
Bicycles: 2
Pedestrians: 68
Pets and motorbikes: 0

20141001 palmer street traffic #5

Weekend daytime
Sunny, 10km/h wind, 19 degrees

Cars: 20
Bicycles: 3
Pedestrians: 55
Pets and motorbikes: 0

20141001 palmer street traffic #6

Weekend night time
Clear, 13km/h wind, 14 degrees

Cars: 38
Bicycles: 2
Pedestrians: 68
Pets and motorbikes: 0

A summary of this information is as follows:



Speed and frequency

20141001 palmer street traffic #8

  • Cars travel at an average speed of 20 km/h.
  • Cars spend on average 13.5 seconds in the street as many of them enter at Nicholson Street and turn off immediately after the school down Royal Lane.
  • Low bicycle use.
  • The dominant use of the street is by pedestrians (large number and more frequently).

20141001 palmer street traffic #9

  • Pedestrians move more quickly during peak periods than off-peak periods.
  • Bicycle speed remain constant across both periods.
  • Car spend more time on the street during peak periods, due to parents finding parking spots to wait for their children.
  • Cars use the street more frequently during peak periods than off-peak periods.

Street usage

20141001 palmer street traffic #10

20141001 palmer street traffic #11

  • The majority of traffic uses the section of the street between Nicholson Street and Royal Lane. This is likely due to the street being used as a shortcut to avoid the Nicholson Street / Victoria Parade intersection to the south.
  • Only 0.01% of traffic originates from Little Fleet Street, considered therefore as a dead end street.

Image sources

  1. Weekday morning peak, this and subsequent images copyright of author.
  2. Weekday daytime.
  3. Weekday afternoon peak.
  4. Weekday night time.
  5. Weekend daytime.
  6. Weekend night time.
  7. Traffic summary.
  8. Speed and frequency.
  9. Peak vs. off-peak.
  10. Pedestrian routes.
  11. Car routes.

Palmer Street

Palmer Street

20140908 palmer street #1

Description and location

20140908 palmer street #2

Palmer Street is located in Fitzroy and runs off the adjacent main street, Nicholson Street. It is located beside the Melbourne Museum, Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens.

Building types

20140908 palmer street #3

  • Linear commercial use along Gertrude and Smith Streets.
  • Interesting education and health precinct located in the southwest corner.
  • Mixed used of commercial and residential typologies.

20140908 palmer street #6

20140908 palmer street #12

  • Palmer Street contains various building types including commercial (Quest Serviced Apartment), educational (Academy of Mary Immaculate) and residential (commission and private house).


20140908 palmer street #5

  • Palmer Street has very low traffic volumes due difficult vehicular access.
  • It is blocked off to car traffic in the middle.
  • One way access from Fitzroy Street and high volume traffic in Nicholson Street.
  • Narrow access from Royal Lane.

Street dimensions

Street Dimension


20140908 palmer street #9

20140908 palmer street #11

  • Street parking is divided between public parking and permit parking zones used by local residents.

Tree Cover

20140908 palmer street #7

Why choose this street?

  • Complexity of the building types along the street, including a school, church, serviced apartments, residential apartments and commission housing.
  • This mix has the potential for a diverse cultural and social background.
  • Lack of vehicular access.
  • Potential for improvement of the use of the street in future.

A .pdf of the whole area of Langridge Ward can be downloaded here (70MB).
A video montage of Langridge Ward streets can be viewed on Vimeo here.

Image sources

  1. Palmer Street, copyright the author.
  2. Map, sourced from Google Maps.
  3. Building types overview, this and subsequent images copyright the author.
  4. Building types.
  5. Building types analysis.
  6. Access.
  7. Street dimensions.
  8. Carparking.
  9. Carparking types.
  10. Tree cover.

The High Line

1 Introduction

1.1 Location

20140824 high line #1

The High Line park is located in Manhattan in New York City. It runs from Gansevoort Street to West 30th Street in the lower western side of the island.

1.2 Description

20140824 high line #2

The High Line is an elevated, linear public park. It is an innovative transformation of an elevated railway, repurposing the disused infrastructure into a public park. It acts as an urban gallery or museum, allowing people to experience the city in an extraordinary way. From careful vantage points along the length of the park, the city becomes the exhibits.

The High Line is 1.6km long and is divided into three stages of construction. The first and second stages are already built and open to the public. The third has yet to be commissioned.

The total project cost for stages 1 and 2 was $152.3 million. This cost was funded via a collection of sources:

  • $112.2 million from the City of New York.
  • $20.3 from the United States Government.
  • $400,000 from the State of New York.
  • $44 million from Friends of the High Line.

2 History 

2.1 Birth of the High Line railway

20140824 high line #3

In New York in 1846, a free public train shared the street with all other traffic types. Thanks to the high record of traffic accidents and deaths on 10th Avenue, this street was also known as Death Avenue.

2.2 Last Cowboys

20140824 high line #4

From the year 1847 to 1941, a group of cowboys were hired to ride along the train tracks and warn people of oncoming trains..

2.3 High Line railway construction

20140824 high line #5

20140824 high line #6

Construction of the High Line Railway finished in 1934. It was elevated 10m above the ground.

2.4 Last train

20140824 high line #7

The last train made its final journey along the High Line in 1980. Consideration was given to demolishing the infrastructure, though no decision was ever taken.

3 Park proposal

3.1 Friends of the High Line

20140824 high line #8

Co-founded by Joshua David and Robert Hammon, Friends of the High Line was created to lobby the city to protect the railway. At that time, they had no money, experience or proper plan.

3.2 Joel Sternfeld

20140824 high line #9

Sternfeld popularised the wild landscape growing from the railway surface via a series of photographic exhibitions.

3.3 Design competition

20140824 high line #10

In the first half of 2003, an open ideas competition was conducted to solicit proposals for reuse of the High Line. 720 teams from 36 countries entered. Hundreds of design entries were displayed at Grand Central Station. The winning submission was a collaboration between architect Diller Scofidio + Renfro, landscape architect Field Operations and Dutch garden designer Piet Oudolf.

3.4 Ownership

The High Line is owned by the City of New York and falls under the jurisdiction of the NYC Department of Parks and RecreationIt was donated to the city by CSX Transportation Inc., the private owners of the original railway. The land beneath the High Line is owned in parcels by New York State, New York City and more than 20 private property owners.

4 Design

4.1 Plants

20140824 high line #11

While it was hoped that the existing wild landscape could be in part retained, the design team came to the conclusion that removing and replacing it was necessary: “Retaining the existing, self-sown landscape was considered, but after much investigation the design team, the City of New York, and Friends of the High Line concluded that it had to be removed – to properly assess the High Line’s structural and maintenance needs, and to responsibly prepare the underlying structure for the creation of a park that will last decades into the future.”

4.2 Gansevoort Plaza

20140824 high line #12

4.3 Open Space

20140824 high line #13

4.4 Diversity

20140824 high line #14

4.5 10th Avenue Square (street cinema)

20140824 high line #16

20140824 high line #15

5 Impact

20140824 high line #17

The High Line project has had impact across many areas of influence:

  • $2 billion in economic impact
  • 29 major development projects
  • 12,000 jobs
  • 2,558 new residential units
  • 1,000 hotel rooms
  • 39,300 square metres of new office space
  • Total visitation in 2011 = 3,724,886