The surveys of car, bicycle and pedestrian traffic through the carpark located at 36 Thomas Street, Richmond, revealed some interesting conclusions about the site. The diagram below represents the total data collected across all six observation periods When overlaid, patterns of movement and usage begin to emerge.
Comparing the diagrams of traffic usage across the day, we can see that the timeframe with the highest use is the peak evening period. Weekday and weekend daytimes also have higher than average usage. However, total numbers of cars using the carpark across the day would be classified as generally low.
Overall, the site has a very low usage as a carpark, with an average of only 14 our 74 car parks in use per hour. The peak period for parking is during the day on weekends, particularly on Saturdays. The lowest usage generally occurs on weeknights.
Of the cars that do use the site for parking, an overwhelming majority of 84%use the south end of the carpark closest to shops on Bridge Road, compared to only 16% which used the north side.
Observations revealed that customers going to the adjacent Thomas Dux supermarket tend to park as close to the south west corner as possible and most do not pay for parking as they only use the carpark for a short period of time.
The path of movement which most pedestrians take is from the pedestrian lane (leading to Bridge Road) cutting through the carpark on a diagonal and exiting at the corner of Thomas and Hull Streets.
The average duration of time spent in the carpark by pedestrians is 43 seconds, compared with 10 seconds for cars.
These conclusions will be used together with the community consultation outcomes to begin to create a masterplan for the site.
Total traffic overlay, this and following image copyright of author.
In order to gauge the current usage of the Richmond carpark located at 36 Thomas Street, a series of observation sessions were conducted across a variety of timeframes. The sessions each lasted 1 hour and were undertaken over a two week period in September. The numbers of cars, pedestrians, bicycles, pets and prams were counted during each session. More detailed information was also collected, including the locations of parking, and both the directions and durations of movement. The data has been collated below.
Weekday morning peak, this and subsequent images copyright of author.
A traffic study on Alexander Street was conducted in order to determine the volume and nature of traffic in the street. The study was designed to look at three modes of travel: car, bicycle and walking. I took note of how fast they were going, how long they spent in the street, which direction they came from and whether they were arriving, departing or passing through. I conducted these observations across 6 periods of study: morning peak, midday, evening peak, night time, weekend morning and weekend evening.
Alexander Street is subject to very low traffic conditions throughout the day, with the morning peak period experiencing the highest volume of traffic and night time the lowest.
The diagram below depicts the observed volumes of traffic for each hour period, making note of whether they were arriving, departing or passing through, and the direction in which they travelled.
The following diagram shows the average amount of time each mode of transport spent in Alexander Street and the speed at which they travelled. There was very little observed difference in this data across the 6 observation periods.
Given the low volume of through traffic recorded, it is clear that Alexander Street is used primarily by its residents. The through traffic that does exist is due to northbound traffic from Gold Street that uses Alexander Street to avoid the intersection with Alexandra Parade. Cars who intend to head west on Alexandra Parade will use the Alexandra Parade slip lane at the end of Alexander Street in order to avoid the traffic lights on Gold Street. Gold Street can get quite busy, hence it makes sense to rat run through Alexander Street. Note that the adjacent Ballarat Street has been closed off to prevent this from occurring (see diagram below).
One option to reduce traffic to Alexander Street further would be to block access to the Alexandra Parade slip lane as has been done to Ballarat Street. Alternatively, I could introduce a shared traffic space heading north to make it less enticing as a thoroughfare. This approach could easily be extended to Forest and Bendigo Streets to the west, to prevent adverse traffic conditions in those streets.
Street traffic data, this and subsequent images copyright of author.
The data collected in my traffic survey sessions was collated to summarise the use of the site by cars, cyclists and pedestrians.
1,597 cars use the site per day. There is approximately one car journey every 25 seconds during peak periods and every 40 seconds during off peak periods, driving at an average speed of 43km/hr.
2,412 bicycles use the site per day, on average. There is approximately one bicycle journey every 12 seconds during peak periods and every 35 seconds during off peak periods, riding at an average speed of 19km/hr.
500 pedestrians use the site per day. There is approximately one pedestrian journey every 110 seconds during peak periods and every 100 seconds during off peak periods, either walking or running at an average speed of 8km/hr.
In every hour, cars spend 12 minutes driving through the site, each taking 11 seconds to travel from the north end of Brunswick Street to Park Street.
In every hour, bicycles spend 17 minutes riding through the site, each taking 10 seconds to travel from the former Casa Elda Vaccari building to the bike crossing at Brunswick Street.
In every hour, pedestrians spend 11 minutes walking or running through the site, each taking 33 seconds to travel within the area outlined by Railway, Park and Brunswick Streets.
The analysis of journeys that start or finish within the site area, compared with those in transit reveals an extremely low percentage of users actually stopping within the site.
3% of car journeys are arrivals or departures. Approximately 46 arrivals and departures occur per day, of 1,597 cars total.
1% of bicycle journeys are arrivals or departures. Approximately 22 arrivals and departures occur per day, of 2,412 bicycles total.
2% of pedestrian journeys are arrivals or departures. Approximately 11 arrivals and departures occur per day, of 500 pedestrians total.
The broad conclusions from the traffic surveys conducted are:
Railway Street is a dead street, in terms of car, bicycle and pedestrian traffic.
The bike path perpendicular to Brunswick Street is highly frequented and opportunities lie in channelling this frequency.
Bicycle usage during peak periods are significantly higher than off peak periods.
The site is almost always used as a thoroughfare.
The grassed area is rarely used as a park.
A shortcoming of the data collected is that it fails to recognise the following:
The average speed of cars and bicycles does not take into account the fact that journeys through the site are often interrupted by vehicles stopping to give way to other traffic. This is especially prevalent during peak periods.
There are typically two types of bicycle speeds: cyclists on a mission (22 – 26 km/hr) and lazy Sunday riders (12-17km/hr).
Brunswick street is typically only used by cars.
Cars tend to significantly speed up over the 40km/hr speed limit after driving over a speed hump along Brunswick Street.
Traffic conclusions, this and following image copyright of author.
The following traffic survey was compiled through a series of 6x one hour observation and data recording sessions of my selected site: the intersection between Railway Street and Brunswick Street, Fitzroy North.
Observations and analyses of the site stretched over 2 weeks, at varying times of the day and night and under different weather conditions. Data was recorded on Thursday August 21st and Saturday August 23rd. The collection of data includes: the number of cars, bicycles, pedestrians and any other modes of transport (e.g. scooters or skateboards) as well as the direction travelled and whether they were in transit, exiting from or arriving into the site.
Weekday morning peak
Total number of journeys = 728
Total number of journeys = 238
Weekday evening peak
Total number of journeys = 592
Total number of journeys = 157
Total number of journeys = 96
Looking south down Brunswick Street, with cycling track running east-west. Photo taken 20th August 2014. This and subsequent images copyright of author.
According to traffic analysis data, Little Charles Street is a quiet street with a higher number of pedestrians than cars and bicycles. The street is narrow and offers only one way traffic, creating a low speed environment with an average car speed of 30km / hour. Some local residents complained that cars drive too fast in this narrow laneway.
Traffic frequencies, this and following image copyright of author.
I decided to investigate Abbotsford laneways because I believe they are dark spaces just left around the city. I have always been curious about how people use these streets. I have chosen the section of Little Charles Street between Victoria and Langridge Streets. I am interested in this street because part of it is lined with a tall, blank wall that disrupts the human scale of the street, while the other part is mostly filled with residences with very limited outdoor space.
Little Charles Street is 5m wide. The section I am working on in this studio is 190m long. I believe this part has the potential to develop into an interesting lane way. Even though it is narrow and experiences very low traffic volume, it has a rich and unusual mix of building uses.
The following data has been collected in late August across 6x 1 hour sessions. In these sessions, I counted the numbers of cars, bicycles and pedestrians observed using the street.
Weekday morning peak, this and subsequent images copyright of author.
The traffic surveys of Johnston Street identified a number of patterns in the frequency, usage and movement of cars, bicycles and pedestrians through the street between Hoddle and Gold Streets. The overall observation of the study area shows that Johnston Street functions as a busy arterial road, carrying significant volumes of traffic, especially cars.
16,240 cars use Johnston Street per day. The frequency of cars along the street is one car journey every 7 seconds, travelling at an average speed of 38km/h during peak times and 44km/h during off-peak times.
1,232 bicycles use the street per day. The frequency of bicycles is one bicycle journey every 62 seconds, travelling at an average speed of 27km/h during peak times and 29km/h during off-peak times.
2,952 pedestrians use the street per day. The frequency of pedestrians is one pedestrian journey every 26 seconds, travelling at an average speed of 9km/h. The average speed of pedestrians remains fairly consistent between peak and off-peak periods.
On average, cars spend 32 seconds travelling between Hoddle Street and Gold Street during peak periods and 27 seconds during off-peak periods.
During the morning peak, cars travelling west towards the city take 32 seconds to move through the street; while cars travelling in the opposite direction take 27 seconds. This pattern is inverted during the evening peak.
On average, bicycles spend 45 seconds travelling between Hoddle Street and Gold Street during peak periods and 42 seconds during off-peak periods.
On average, pedestrians spend 134 seconds travelling between Hoddle Street and Gold Street during both peak and off-peak periods.
The overall observation reveals a substantial difference between peak and off-peak periods.
In off-peak periods, the frequency of cars along Johnston Street is one car journey every 10 seconds. In peak periods, the frequency is one car journey every 4 seconds.
In off-peak periods, the frequency of bicycles along Johnston Street is bicycle journey every 86 seconds. In peak periods, the frequency is one bicycle journey every 37 seconds.
In off-peak periods, the frequency of pedestrians along Johnston Street is one pedestrian journey every 36 seconds. In peak periods, the frequency is one pedestrian journey every 19 seconds.
The observations also looked at the number of journeys that arrive into and depart from the subject area. This showed that only a small percentage of cars, bicycles and pedestrian journeys start or finish within the subject area and that most of the traffic along Johnston Street is made up of those that are passing through.
5% of car journeys are arrivals and departures. In peak periods, 40 cars arrive or depart per hour. In off-peak periods, 33 cars arrive of depart per hour. A total of 818 cars arrive into or depart from the subject area per day.
7% of bicycle journeys are arrivals and departures. In peak periods, 11 bicycles arrive or depart per hour. In off-peak periods, 12 bicycles arrive or depart per hour. A total of 284 bicycles arrive into or depart from the subject area per day.
16% of pedestrian journeys are arrivals and departures. In peak periods, 17 pedestrians arrive or depart per hour. In off-peak periods, 23 pedestrians arrive or depart per hour. A total of 460 pedestrians arrive into or depart from the subject area per day.
A summary of conclusions that have come from the traffic surveys are:
Johnston Street is a traffic thoroughfare, with a high percentages of traffic (cars, bicycles, pedestrians) passing through as opposed to arriving or departing.
The high volume and frequency of cars along the street means that Johnston Street is primarily occupied by vehicle movement.
Johnston Street is not as well used by pedestrians and bicycles.
The direction and volume of journeys along the street changes over the period of the day. Weekday morning peak periods carry large volumes of traffic towards the city and destinations further along Johnston Street such as Smith Street and Nicholson Street. Weekday evening peak periods carry large volumes of traffic towards Hoddle Street, the Eastern Freeway and Victoria Park Station (especially for pedestrians). Weekday afternoons, weekday nights and weekend afternoons carry higher volumes of pedestrian journeys towards the city and destinations further along Johnston Street such as Smith Street, Brunswick Street and Nicholson Street.
Peak periods, as opposed to off-peak periods, yield higher usage of the street by cars, bicycles and pedestrians.
Average frequency of journeys, this and subsequent images copyright of author.
The following traffic data for Johnston Street was collected over 6x 1 hour observations, undertaken during a two period in August and September. The observations were made during the following periods:
Weekday morning peak
Weekday evening peak
As part of the each session, the following observations were collected:
Number of cars, bikes and pedestrians (including pedestrians accompanied by prams or dogs) moving through the street.
Direction of travel.
Number of arrivals into and departures from properties on the street.
Average time taken to travel between Hoddle and Gold Streets (and vice versa).
The following graph collates the data collected:
Johnston Street traffic data, copyright of author.
The study area for my Streets Without Cars design project is the section of Johnston Street in Collingwood bounded by Gold Street to the west and Hoddle Street to the east. A number of streets and laneways such as Campbell Street, Palmer Street, Harmsworth Street, Francis Street and Sydney Street enter Johnston Street from the south.
The street comprises a medium density property layout, with a mixture of one to two storey shops, offices, workshops and residences. Johnston Street is approximately 21m wide, with 14m dedicated to east-west bound vehicle movement, shared bus / bicycle lanes and parallel parking. The footpaths on either side of the street are 3m wide with immature tree plantings.
Building types / land use
Movement and transport
Public / private open space and vegetation
Building footprints, this and subsequent images copyright of author.